Broken Access Control
Most computer systems are designed for use with multiple users. Privileges mean what a user is permitted to do. Common privileges include viewing and editing files, or modifying system files.
Privilege escalation means a user receives privileges they are not entitled to. These privileges can be used to delete files, view private information, or install unwanted programs such as viruses. It usually occurs when a system has a bug that allows security to be bypassed or, alternatively, has flawed design assumptions about how it will be used. Privilege escalation occurs in two forms:
- Vertical privilege escalation, also known as privilege elevation, where a lower privilege user or application accesses functions or content reserved for higher privilege users or applications (e.g. Internet Banking users can access site administrative functions or the password for a smartphone can be bypassed.)
- Horizontal privilege escalation, where a normal user accesses functions or content reserved for other normal users (e.g. Internet Banking User A accesses the Internet bank account of User B)1
Challenges covered in this chapter
|Admin Section||Access the administration section of the store.||⭐⭐|
|CSRF||Change the name of a user by performing Cross-Site Request Forgery from another origin.||⭐⭐⭐|
|Easter Egg||Find the hidden easter egg.||⭐⭐⭐⭐|
|Five-Star Feedback||Get rid of all 5-star customer feedback.||⭐⭐|
|Forged Feedback||Post some feedback in another users name.||⭐⭐⭐|
|Forged Review||Post a product review as another user or edit any user's existing review.||⭐⭐⭐|
|Manipulate Basket||Put an additional product into another user's shopping basket.||⭐⭐⭐|
|Product Tampering||Change the
|SSRF||Request a hidden resource on server through server.||⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐|
|View Basket||View another user's shopping basket.||⭐⭐|
Access the administration section of the store
Just like the score board, the admin section was not part of your "happy path" tour because there seems to be no link to that section either. In case you were already logged in with the administrator account you might have noticed that not even for him there is a corresponding option available in the main menu.
- Knowing it exists, you can simply guess what URL the admin section might have.
- Alternatively, you can try to find a reference or clue within the parts of the application that are not usually visible in the browser
- It is probably just slightly harder to find and gain access to than the score board link
- There is some access control in place, but there are at least three ways to bypass it.
Change the name of a user by performing Cross-Site Request Forgery from another origin
This challenges requires you to craft the code for the Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) attack within http://htmledit.squarefree.com, which represents another origin than the Juice Shop. You can enter your HTML and Script code in the upper half of the page, while the result is instantly displayed in the lower half.
- Take a look at what happens when you change the username within the profile page.
- Search for information about CSRF attacks and look out for examples that can be applied to this challenge.
- Write the code for the CSRF attack within http://htmledit.squarefree.com and verify that it changes your username.
Please be aware that the challenge is designed to be solved only with the specified online HTML editor. This means that Juice Shop will not recognize the challenge as solved when you are using another origin, such as for example JSFiddle or CodePen.
Find the hidden easter egg
An Easter egg is an intentional inside joke, hidden message, or feature in an interactive work such as a computer program, video game or DVD menu screen. The name is used to evoke the idea of a traditional Easter egg hunt.2
- If you solved one of the other four file access challenges, you already know where the easter egg is located
- Simply reuse the trick that already worked for the files above
When you open the easter egg file, you might be a little disappointed, as the developers taunt you about not having found the real easter egg! Of course finding that is a follow-up challenge to this one.
Get rid of all 5-star customer feedback
If you successfully solved above admin section challenge deleting the 5-star feedback is very easy.
Post some feedback in another users name
The Juice Shop allows users to provide general feedback including a star rating and some free text comment. When logged in, the feedback will be associated with the current user. When not logged in, the feedback will be posted anonymously. This challenge is about vilifying another user by posting a (most likely negative) feedback in his or her name!
- This challenge can be solved via the user interface or by intercepting the communication with the RESTful backend.
- To find the client-side leverage point, closely analyze the HTML form used for feedback submission.
- The backend-side leverage point is similar to some of the XSS challenges found in OWASP Juice Shop.
Post a product review as another user or edit any user's existing review
The Juice Shop allows users to provide reviews of all the products. A user has to be logged in before they can post any review for any of the products. This challenge is about vilifying another user by posting a (most likely bad) review in his or her name!
- This challenge can be solved by using developers tool of your browser or with tools like postman.
- Analyze the form used for review submission and try to find a leverage point.
- This challenge is pretty similar to Post some feedback in another users name challenge.
Put an additional product into another user's shopping basket
View another user's shopping basket was only about spying out other customers. For this challenge you need to get your hands dirty by putting a product into someone else's basket that cannot be already in there!
- Check the HTTP traffic while placing products into your own shopping basket to find a leverage point.
- Adding more instances of the same product to someone else's basket does not qualify as a solution. The same goes for stealing from someone else's basket.
- This challenge requires a bit more sophisticated tampering than others of the same ilk.
Change the href of the link within the O-Saft product description
The OWASP SSL Advanced Forensic Tool (O-Saft) product has a link in its description that leads to that projects wiki page. In this challenge you are supposed to change that link so that it will send you to http://kimminich.de instead. It is important to exactly follow the challenge instruction to make it light up green on the score board:
- Original link tag in the description:
<a href="https://wiki.owasp.org/index.php/O-Saft" target="_blank">More...</a>
Expected link tag in the description:
<a href="http://kimminich.de" target="_blank">More...</a>
Theoretically there are three possible ways to beat this challenge:
- Finding an administrative functionality in the web application that lets you change product data
- Looking for possible holes in the RESTful API that would allow you to update a product
- Attempting an SQL Injection attack that sneaks in an
UPDATEstatement on product data
- In practice two of these three ways should turn out to be dead ends
Request a hidden resource on server through server
This Server-side Request Forgery challenge will come back to the malware you used in Infect the server with juicy malware by abusing arbitrary command execution.
- Using whatever you find inside the malware directly will not do you any good.
- For this to count as an SSRF attack you need to make the Juice Shop server attack itself.
- Do not try to find the source code for the malware on GitHub. Take it apart with classic reverse-engineering techniques instead.
In a Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF) attack, the attacker can abuse functionality on the server to read or update internal resources. The attacker can supply or a modify a URL which the code running on the server will read or submit data to, and by carefully selecting the URLs, the attacker may be able to read server configuration such as AWS metadata, connect to internal services like http enabled databases or perform post requests towards internal services which are not intended to be exposed. 3
View another user's shopping basket
This horizontal privilege escalation challenge demands you to access the shopping basket of another user. Being able to do so would give an attacker the opportunity to spy on the victims shopping behaviour. He could also play a prank on the victim by manipulating the items or their quantity, hoping this will go unnoticed during checkout. This could lead to some arguments between the victim and the vendor.
- Try out all existing functionality involving the shopping basket while having an eye on the HTTP traffic.
- There might be a client-side association of user to basket that you can try to manipulate.
- In case you manage to update the database via SQL Injection so that a user is linked to another shopping basket, the application will not notice this challenge as solved.